Examples of frog adaptations include the ability to process oxygen through their skin, having webbed feet, and developing both lungs and gills in different stages of their lives.
Frogs, being amphibians, are excellent at surviving in their environment. Although they are pretty much subject to being prey, many of them have developed an arsenal of tools that allow them to hunt on both land and water andevade predators.
1. Breathable Skin
The frog’s skin can process oxygen from water, which gives them the ability to breathe while swimming and while submerged. The downside is that the frog’s skin has to be moist all the time.
Frogs and toads have different skin types. Some skins are smooth, and some have warts. The skin is a permeable membrane, and their bodies produce mucous that keeps the skin moist. If a frog’s skin dries enough, it cannot get rid of carbon dioxide, and it will die. It can also die from drowning if submerged long enough.
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2. Webbed Feet
Frogs have webbed toes that make it easy for them to swim. With webbed feet, they can push more surface area from the water when they swim.
The front legs have four toes each, which gives the frog a firm grip on the soil. The back feet have webs. Their feet have toe pads that help them climb trees and stay on leaves when hanging out and looking for prey.
3. Excellent Night Vision
Most frogs are near-sighted. What this means is that they have poor vision when things are far. Nevertheless, they have extremely good night vision, and their eyes are highly sensitive to movement.
Frogs have bulging eyes, and the position of these eyes allows them to see at the front, sides, and partially at their back. Despite being near-sighted, the frog can see about 180 degrees in front of it.
4. No Neck
Frogs do not have a neck, and this may seem like a disadvantage. However, it is good for them as it gives them a somewhat torpedo body shape. The absence of a neck allows the frog to swim better and avoid whiplash when jumping.
Without a neck, a frog can swim faster and manage the drag resistance of water. With only one vertebra, it can move its head forward and a little backward but not side to side. This is fine, as a frog has a 360-degree range of sight at all times.
The habitat of frogs determines how they evolved their colors. Some frogs rely on camouflage to survive, while some bright colors to help them confuse enemies or warn predators.
Most frogs also have different colors between their top side and underside. What this does is help them hide from predators. Some frogs change color to adjust to the temperature.
For example, they can absorb more light to keep them warm, and this light absorption changes their skin color. If they want to reduce the heat, they can control their skin to take in less light, and their skin color changes again.
6. Powerful Legs
Frogs evolved to become excellent jumpers. They have powerful legs that work like a spring. If given a chance to prepare, a frog can leap great distances compared to its body length.
Frogs leap to escape from predators. In addition, their hind legs evolved t be muscular to allow them to swim better. The world record for the longest frog jump is 130 inches, and the winner is the South African sharp-nosed frog, which is only three inches long. It is like a 5-foot person jumping 220 feet!
7. Large Mouth
Frogs have a large mouth to allow them to swallow prey. Many people think that frogs only eat insects, but this couldn’t be more wrong. A frog would eat anything that it can fit into its mouth.
The frog with the largest mouth is the Argentine Horned Frog. Some people call this frog the pacman. It would eat anything, literally. Sometimes, it may even eat something that is bigger than itself, even if it means choking. The pacman has become an exotic pet. It would eat literally anything like lizards, insects, bugs, and even mice!
8. Sticky Tongue
Most frogs have extendable tongues. They evolved this way because most amphibians are small. They also cannot run, and as such, there must be a way to reach food quickly.
The tongue also helps the frog in swallowing, as the tongue produces mucous that helps keep the mouth wet. What makes the tongue unique is that it is sticky, and an unlucky prey will have a hard time getting itself loose once it is stuck.
Some frogs have poison—and it is why they have no predators. Poisonous frogs have poisonous glands on their skin. The golden poison frog, for one, has enough poison to kill 20,000 mice or ten humans. It is so toxic that even touching it can cause death.
It is true that some earlier humans used frog poison in their darts and arrows. The frogs, on the other hand, can roam freely. Even most snakes cannot kill poisonous frogs—the snakes know that they can die. However, there are some snakes that eventually evolved to negate the poison of some frogs.
10. Lungs and Gills
Frogs have lungs when they are adults. However, they had gills when they were young. When frogs hatch, they have gills and breathe through their gills as tadpoles.
As the tadpoles mature, they lose their gills, and the lungs are now fully developed. In addition, the frogs can also now breathe through their skin when underwater.
Frogs have it good—they possess many capabilities that allow them to survive in tropical and wet areas, except in desert environments. As amphibians, they can mass produce and ensure that their species survive. While frogs have a lot of enemies, like small mammals and snakes, they also have the power to escape, evade, and detect danger. Overall, frogs have a balanced set of tools to hunt and not be hunted.