Examples of dolphin adaptations include a streamlined body for swimming, a blowhole for breathing, the ability to hold its breath, and the ability to use sonar and communicate.
Dolphins are highly equipped predators, and while they look cute, they can be menacing. Their bodies adapted well to suit their hunting and survival needs in the water, and below are some of the most astonishing adaptations of the dolphin.
1. A blowhole at the top
Dolphins do not have gills. They have blowholes at the top of their heads, and they must come to the surface to breathe.
Dolphins have adapted so well to this kind of breathing that it takes less than one second for a dolphin to inhale and exhale while on the surface. The dolphin’s blowhole has a flap, and the dolphin controls this flap to open and close through muscle contraction.
The flap closes underwater and opens on the surface when the dolphin breathes. There is also a complex nerve system around this blowhole, which tells the dolphin about pressure changes.
2. Echolocation abilities
Echolocation is the ability to use sound to determine the location of objects. Dolphins use this to find prey and “see” underwater.
With echolocation, the dolphin analyzes the sound that bounces off of objects. First, the dolphin produceshigh-frequencyclicking sounds that travel through the water. These sounds bounce back when they hit an object, such as an animal.
3. Long and sleek body shape
Like the great white shark, dolphins have a long and sleek body shape that allows them to reduce the drag of water as they swim. Because of this, dolphins can swim as fast as 10 feet per second!
The shape of a dolphin is streamlined like a torpedo. What this means is that their bodies are larger at the front, and this part pushes the water. Its body is also muscular, and the thin bottom half of the body allows the dolphin to take advantage of hydrodynamics.
4. Breath Holding
Dolphins can hold their breath for 12 minutes. They have specialized lungs that are proportional to their bodies. What makes dolphins different is that breathing is selective, whereas breathing is automatic for humans.
Dolphins also have a lot of air sacs, which means that they can hold more air than an average mammal. Dolphins also have a unique circulatory system. They can reduce their heart rate and control the distribution of oxygen through blood flow. As such, they can focus their blood distribution to the brain and the heart if needed.
5. Group Hunting
Dolphins have adapted to hunting in groups. Studies show that a dolphin in a group plays a role to make the hunt successful. Typically, some are drivers, and some are barriers.
Driver dolphins are those that chase the prey, forcing them to move to a certain location. The barriers are the dolphins that block the way, trapping the prey.
This adaptation is important to their survival, as hunting as a group can yield better success rates than hunting alone.
6. Keen Eyesight
Dolphins evolved to have a keen sense of sight underwater and out of it. It makes them much more effective, considering that they already have echolocation.
Dolphins are particularly better at seeing underwater. Their pupils have a double split, and their eyes can adjust to varying light conditions. Right now, there is no study that can show how far a dolphin can see underwater.
Like humans, dolphins have eyes that have rods and cones. As such, it is widely considered they can see color, and also see in the dark or in the light.
7. Two Stomachs
One thing that makes a dolphin unique is that it has two stomachs. The first one is for storing food, and the other is for digesting food.
Because of this, the dolphin can store food while on the hunt. A typical dolphin can store eat up to 30 pounds of fish per day. On top of this, the dolphin’s two stomachs have three different gastric chambers or compartments. Each of these chambers has a different digestive function.
8. A Large Brain
A large brain means there is a better capacity to carry more cells. And with more cells come a better ability to think. The dolphin’s brain-to-body ratio is close to a human being, just a little above the chimpanzee’s.
Because of a large brain, dolphins can communicate and also create social structures. Dolphins are called the brainiacs of the ea. They have a high degree of intelligence, and they have the ability to learn and also apply what they have learned in practical situations.
9. Adaptation for Diving
Dolphins are highly adapted to deep diving, even if they do not really need to do it. Dolphins can dive down to 390 meters or 1,280 feet.
Diving is not necessary because dolphins have an adequate food supply in shallow water. However, they may need to dive to conserve oxygen. During this dive, the dolphin can reduce itsheart rate. To support deep dives, dolphins have specific protein molecules that allow them to store oxygen in body tissues.
Thermoregulation is the ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Dolphins have several ways to regulate temperatures, like increased insulation, decreased surface-to-volume ratio, and heat exchange systems.
Thermoregulation is important for a mammal like a dolphin because water temperature also changes underwater. With an automated temperature adjustment system, the dolphin does not have to bother basking under the sun if it is feeling cold.
Dolphins are fearsome predators in the ocean. On land, one can compare them to wolves that hunt in packs. Of all dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin is the most known, as it is the one that possesses almost all these adaptations.
In the wild, dolphins are the apex predators. With a brain 40% bigger than that of humans, a dolphin can be intelligent enough to outsmart any animal that preys on it. While dolphins are cure—they can be extremely aggressive.
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